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This page should help you to prepare yourself for the implementation and administration of the full FourOh-LLC Software Stack. This is probably the most complex page to construct and maintain on this entire wiki, with concerns about links breaking, the accuracy of information, the nature of the software / license, the purpose and capabilities - the list goes on. Please consider this page to be permanently under construction.

The GNU and the GPL

FourOh-LLC considers the GNU and its licenses as the natural, necessary, desirable extension and successor to the Public Library Systems. If you (still) insist that the GPL is some sort of communistic, parasitic aggression against the Free Market you are welcome to remain silly. The fact is, if it was not for the GNU and the GPL there would be nothing to write about, and your would have nothing to read. All this exists because of the GNU and the GPL, and regarding this manner we rest our case.

Some of the software listed below carry a different license which may or may not be compatible with the GNU and the GPL. These are introduced and explained here, here, here, and in many other places.

FourOh-LLC is a “user” - we do not re-brand or re-sale, we do not contribute code and we are not concerned with WHICH Open Source License governs which Software. Neither should you be concerned as long as your installations and projects remain compatible with the FourOh-LLC Software Stack, and you are not re-branding or selling for profit.

All other legal agreements with our hardware, bandwidth and other service providers: we are a privileged access network, and we do not tolerate anything from anybody that could possibly violate any agreement.

Itemized List

[a] Cost is the least of our concerns, really! Please consider that we would not contract our time for less than 100 USD per hour, which is a bargain when it comes to internet infrastructure design and support. We are “cheap” because none of us are formally trained, certified, bona fide network Architects or software Engineers. Yet we are subject experts, and we are not “cheap enough” to spend countless hours wrestling a bargain 5 bucks a month VPS when there is a high-quality one for $10.00 a month.

[b] The particular “release” of the Operating System is only part of the concern. The main concerns is with the virtualization platform - KVM vs. OpenStack vs. Virtuozzo vs. others. Some concern is with the workmanship, the quality of the Debian implementation on the top of the platform. Linode was selected as one of the best in regards to all of these.

[c] We like to use this web GUI to manage our Debian installations. When it comes to the service stack such as the DNS, web and databases it makes things easier and quicker. It must be used with caution as some other management stack such as YunoHost does not like it when Webmin touches its services… but to configure DNS it is a very useful tool.

[d] We buy our domains via Gandi, which has good support for customized DNSSEC configuration. We host our DNS on dedicated VPS from Linode in the USA and from OVH in Canada, and we use BIND 9 configured and maintained via Webmin.

[e] This is our main, and currently the only, service stack for user and application management, and for access rights management. The alternative is Virtualmin / Cloudmin, by the same folks who make and maintain Webmin. Unlike YunoHost the Webmin stack is a much more complex software, with some cloud-like features, and it is not suited for deployment by an individual or a small group.

YunoHost FULLY MANAGES the following components, and this is where Webmin must stay clear of altering their configurations and options. Email is provided with:

A main features of the YunoHost portal are the virtual mail domains and email aliases. Part of a fully functioning email stack, but not part of the email service is the intrusion prevention and spam filtering.

FourOh-LLC calls YunoHost a “service stack host”, not a server, a portal or something else. The reason is that YunoHost combines simple, single-instance services with complex, multi-layered functionality such as containers, firewall and routing. As a result, a single VPS hosting a single instance of Debian OS, and the single instance of the YunoHost service stack is able to serve many different sub-domains such and All these sub-domains may have separate email accounts and aliases, and separate applications.

[f] This is the HTTP over SSL service, also called the web server. It manages Let'Encrypt certificates for all sub-domains, runs the PhP scripting engine, and provide functionality to most other part of the network. Webmin has no support for NGINX (it has support for Apache instead). Whatever you do do not install Apache on the YunoHost!

[g] This is the SQL database, allowing massive amount of data to be stored and searched.

[h] The OpenLDAP directory service implementation.

The rest of the network consist of end-user applications such as the RoundCube web mail client for encrypted, and SOGo for regular email, DokuWiki which you are reading right now, and Etherpad for real-time collaboration. These are fully integrated with the OpenLDAP directory and provide a single-login navigation between sub-domains and applications.

Also part of the FourOh-LLC Software Stack, and for now hosted on a different network is the Joomla! CMS and its third-party components such as Akeeba Backup, Fabrik Custom Application Builder, Kunena Forum, Gantry 5 Template Framework.


There are quite a few more components which are not listed - ssh, sqlite3, backup and restore. They are going to be documented sooner or later, but for now the more significant parts are listed in full.

software_stack/full_list.txt · Last modified: 2020/02/15 09:06 by admin2welcome